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Electrical Circuit ( or Network ) in an interconnection of physical Electrical device. The purpose of electric Networks Is to distribute and convert Electrical energy into some other some other forms. Accordingly , the basic Circuit components are an energy sources and energy converter (or converters ) and conductor Connecting them.

An energy sources such as primary or secondary cell a generator and the like, is a device that converts chemical, mechanical thermal or some other forms of energy in to Electrical energy.

An energy converter also called the load, (such as lamp, heating appliances or Electric motor) convert Electrical energy in to light, heat , mechanical work and so on.
The relationship between the current through a resistance and the Voltage across the same resistance is called its volt- Ampere ( or voltage- Current ) characteristics. When represented graphically , voltage voltage are laid off as abscissae and current as ordinates.

There are two types of Volt ampere characteristics straight line and non linear ( curve ) as shown in figs. Respectively.

Networks Characteristics

Resistive element for which the volt Ampere characteristics is a straight line. Fig. Are Called linear and the electric Circuit containing only linear resistance are called linear Circuits.

Resistive element for which are Volt ampere characteristics is other than a straight line are termed non linear and so the electric Circuits containing them are called non linear Circuits.

Example of non linear elements are tungsten lamp, vacuum tubes and transistors etc.

An electric Circuits whose characteristics or properties are same in either direction ( e.g., a distribution or Transmission line ) is called the bilateral Circuit. The distribution or Transmission line can be made to perform its function equally well in either Direction.

An electric Circuits characteristics or properties change with the Direction of its operation ( e.g., diodes, rectifiers), is called the unilateral Circuits.

Lumped and distribute parameter Circuits.

A Circuit consisting of a limited (finite) number of Circuits elements is refered to lumped parameter Circuits. While a Circuit containing unlimited ( infinite ) number of Circuits elements is called a distributed parameter Circuits. Transmission line is an example of distributed parameters Circuits.

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